Osmosis is a physical phenomenon of great importance in biology, and describes the movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane. A semi-permeable membrane is a barrier that allows water molecules to pass through, but not salt ions (sodium and chloride).

Semi-permeable membranes are sometimes called “molecular sieves" for this reason. When a semi-permeable membrane separates a region of salty water from a region of less-salty water, the water will flow from the less-salty side to the more-salty side. The water is flowing so as to try to equalize the “saltiness" on both sides of the membrane.

Semi Permeable MembraneOsmosis

Although may be counter-intuitive, this process is a central function of living cells, and leads to an actual physical pressure (osmotic pressure). If a semi-permeable membrane separates salt water from fresh water in a U-shaped tube, the water will flow from the fresh side and the water levels on the fresh and salty sides will be different, as illustrated below.


Traditional methods of killing bacteria or algae have involved using chemical disinfectants, or some form of radiation such as UV light. However, using pure water is a much more effective approach.

We can think of bacteria as essentially bags of different chemicals, where the “bag" is a semi-permeable membrane. Now let us consider bacteria in normal water. Even “fresh" water contains a certain amount of salt, and so we have a picture of each of our bacteria as a semi-permeable bag, with salty water both inside and outside the bag.

Now consider what happens if the bacteria are dropped into distilled water, which is super-pure and contains no salt at all. The water inside the bacteria is much saltier than the water outside.

Due to osmosis, the water begins to flow from the purer region to the salty region, i.e. from the outside to the inside of the bacteria. This will affect the functioning of the bacteria, killing it, and the osmotic pressure will eventually cause the bacteria to burst Therefore, bacteria can be killed simply by placing them in distilled water.

Cell Membrane Rupture

A bacterium passing through the HydroFlow ferrites becomes charged

A bacterium passing through the HydroFlow ferrites becomes charged


water molecules are attracted to the charged bacterium thus creating a wetting layer of pure water


Osmosis forces the pure water through the cell wall and builds pressure within the cell


the osmotic pressure built inside the bacterium causes the cell walls to burst and the cell dies


Hydropath technology applies a charge to any particles or bacteria, passing through the ferrite ring of a unit. Therefore, the unit applies a charge (either positive or negative) to any bacteria passing through the unit. This in turn will attract a layer of highly pure water that forms a “wetting layer" or “hydration layer" around the bacteria. Once this layer of water has formed, osmosis begins to act and again forces the water into the bacterial cell, bursting it.

HydroFlow units placed on water lines have ferrite rings around the pipes (metal, PVC, others) that emit the 150 kHz signal so that all bacteria passing through the ferrite are charged and the process of forming the hydration layer on bacteria and algae occurs continuously.  This process allows chemicals to be significantly decreased or in most cases, discontinued.


Removal of existing scale

In addition to preventing the buildup of scale, Hydropath technology removes existing limescale (calcium carbonate scale). When the dissolved calcium (Ca) and bicarbonate ions crystallize (HCO3)2, they form calcium carbonate (CaCO3, limescale), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O).

Calcium Formula

The limescale already present in the pipe can be dissolved with Hydropath technology. When new crystals form, they release carbon dioxide which can dissolve existing scale.

Hydro Path

  • The Hydropath signal forms clusters in the water

  • When the water is heated, it becomes supersaturated and the clusters form crystals of calcium carbonate, and release carbon dioxide

  • The carbon dioxide can now dissolve the existing scale in the system